Augustine eruption

This is the kind of eruption I am talking in About, you want to stay clear of a Plinian class of explosivity greater than 3, of course comparatively wimpy Strombolian eruptions like Etna may not reach the Stratosphere but for us small creatures beware! This particular eruption sent a tephra cloud 14 kilometers, past the tropopause at 9-10 km, into the Stratosphere. This happened during the Arctic winter at a high latitude of 59*N, close to the Arctic Circle. It is estimated that 800,000 metric tons of Sulfur Dioxide was emiited through the course of eruptions. Generally this is only 1-6% of gases, water vapor in steam comprises about 60% thus at least 8,000,000 metric tons of steam entered the Stratosphere. A pix of the Zonal Temperature anomaly will depict the result of the plume heating up the upper level winds and displacing the Polar Vortex thus causing a Major Stratospheric Warming. Image

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